- 文章をプツプツ切らない。主張に関係ない説明的な文章はくっつける。（, who ~, みたいな感じに）
Save Nature with a New Perspective.
Why should people save nature? What role does nature, specifically water, have in people’s lives? The Earth has a huge amount of water and approximately 70 percent of its surface is occupied by water. Water is one of the closest natural resources for people and there are many issues related to water. One case is around the Colorado River. The Colorado River travels 2330 kilometers starting in the US Rocky Mountains, passing through 7 states: California, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and New Mexico (Cbsnews, 2007) and ending at Mexico’s Sea of Cortez (Postel, 2017, p.19). “The Colorado River sustains 40 million people’s lives” (Philpott, 2014). Many people depend on the Colorado River as a source of electricity, farming, drinking water, and cultural activities. However, during these last few decades, the Colorado River has lost a large amount of water by human activity: people made dams to store and supply water. They used water to grow crops and maintain big cities such as Las Vegas. Now, the situation is serious for all people around the Colorado River. There are many reasons to preserve nature, including the Colorado River. Aldo Leopold, who lived from 1887 to 1948, was a philosopher, ecologist, and environmentalist stressed that nature is not property for humans alone, even if nature is essential for economic development. Also, people have to shift their perspective of nature from conqueror of it into member and citizen of it. Nature is necessary for human economy, and at the same time, it has a right to be preserved with its intrinsic justice because of its beauty. This is a time to a establish respectful relationship between people and nature with Leopold’s land ethic.
People in Las Vegas are over-relying on the Colorado River. Nature has the ability to make money and the Colorado River has become essential for human economy. The Colorado River is the lifeline for Las Vegas. Las Vegas is known as a world renown resort city. It is especially famous for its extravagant water shows. Every night, tourists enjoy watching the exciting fountains. Also, Las Vegas is developing dramatically and many hotels are under construction. They make huge amounts of money, but they also need a large amount of water. Many people assumed that Las Vegas had rich water resources, so people did not have to worry about the water supply, “but, in 2001, the city of illusion and fantasy stumbled upon a stark reality. It had run out of water” (Glennon, 2009). Las Vegas gets water from the Colorado River. In the past, the Colorado River has had a huge water supply, but now, its water level has been reduced. People in Las Vegas are worried about their livelihood because of the change. If they lose it, they can’t sustain their life and they will suffer huge economic damage. As a result, they started to find solutions to this water issue. For instance, they have found another source of water. Groundwater. Also, the government made a law to regulate the uses of tap water. It is to some extent possible to maintain the life and their economy, for now, but the future is unknown.
On the other hand, Leopold offered advice that “system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided” (1949). He added an explanation: “no important change in ethics was ever accomplished without an internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and conviction” (Leopold, 1949). People still find value in only the economical aspect of nature and it is meaningless to conserve it just for this value. If they restore nature, they will destroy it again for their profits. Therefore, while there are several economic reasons to save the Colorado River, ultimately, people need to maintain a respectful relationship between people and nature.
In addition to the revaluation of the relationship between people and nature, preserving the Colorado River is necessary from the point of justice. There is justice in and of itself in preserving it. As a example of injustice against the Colorado River, people in Mexico and especially America has detoured a large amount of water for their cities such as Las Vegas and farming crops. Postel, who is the author of Replenish, put into words: “The Colorado River became less like a river and more like an elegant plumbing system” (2017, p.21). Once the two countries realized their fault and signed a treaty in 1944 to decide how to divvy up the water resources. Mexico was allowed to use 10 percent of the river’s flow, and America was 90 percent of it (2017, p.21). However, it was not enough, and people overlooked the justice to nature. They divided water the resource among the two countries. Did water remain for nature? No, it didn’t. There is 0 percent of water left for the river, which means the river flow couldn’t reach the sea. It was obviously injustice to nature.
Leopold mentioned that nature is not only for humans. Nature is one part of a huge ecosystem. The Colorado River forms Colorado Delta. Colorado Delta provides a crucial stopover for millions of migratory birds on the Pacific Flyway (Postel, 2017, p.20). This is just one case of many benefits provided by the Colorado River. It allows the whole ecosystem to make it varied and beautiful. According to a scholar article written by Adrian Armstrong, “water is an essential component of all life, and a ‘water ethic’ should strive to ensure that each organism in the whole has the water it needs, in the appropriate condition” (2005). Therefore, it is obvious that nature is not only for a specific country or people, they have to save and share the natural resources among not only themselves but also nature itself.
Postel argued about nature from a more practical aspect. On the other hand, Leopold thought about how it was a more spiritual issue. He said that people have to change their mind on the relationship between them and nature. It is a fact that nature is crucial for economic development. However, nature is not property, and it is not only for humans because nature has an important role in the ecosystem. People need to treat nature more like their friend and less like a money tree.
Armstrong, A. (2006). Ethical Issues in Water Use and Sustainability. Area, Vol. 38 Issue 1, pages 9 -15.
Cbsnews (2007, December 24). 7 States Sign Colorado River Pact. CBSNews. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/7-states-sign-colorado-river-pact/
Glennon, R. (2009). Unquenchable: America’s water crisis and what to do about it. Island Press.
Leopold, A. (1949). A Sand Country Almanac. Oxford University Press.
Postel, S. (2017). Replenish: The virtuous cycle of water and prosperity. Island Press.
Philpott, T. (2014, August 4). 40 Million People Depend on the Colorado River. Now It’s Drying Up. Mother Jones. Retrieved from https://www.motherjones.com/food/2014/08/southwests-water-crunch-even-worse-we-thought/
1000 wordsくらい書きました。留学前はTOEFLのwritingで300 wrordsをなんとか書けるレベルでした。それがこっちに来た途端、これくらいの長さの文章を、自分で情報を集めながら書かなくてはなりません。